Refining PD-1/PD-L1 assessment for biomarker-guided immunotherapy: A review

Authors

  • Marek Zdrenka Department of Tumor Pathology and Pathomorphology, Oncology Centre-Prof. Franciszek Łukaszczyk Memorial Hospital, Bydgoszcz, Poland
  • Adam Kowalewski Department of Tumor Pathology and Pathomorphology, Oncology Centre-Prof. Franciszek Łukaszczyk Memorial Hospital, Bydgoszcz, Poland https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2504-6307
  • Navid Ahmadi Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Royal Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, UK
  • Rizwan Ullah Sadiqi Medical University Pleven, Pleven, Bulgaria https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5713-0135
  • Łukasz Chmura Department of Pathomorphology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland
  • Jędrzej Borowczak Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Oncology, Chair of Pathomorphology and Clinical Placentology, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9873-3285
  • Mateusz Maniewski Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Oncology, Chair of Pathomorphology and Clinical Placentology, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5713-0135
  • Łukasz Szylberg Department of Tumor Pathology and Pathomorphology, Oncology Centre-Prof. Franciszek Łukaszczyk Memorial Hospital, Bydgoszcz, Poland; Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Oncology, Chair of Pathomorphology and Clinical Placentology, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1349-5906

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17305/bb.2023.9265

Keywords:

PD-1, PD-L1, biomarkers, diagnosis, treatment response, digital pathology.

Abstract

Anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (anti-PD-L1)  immunotherapy is an increasingly crucial in cancer treatment. To date, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved four PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining protocols, commercially available in the form of "kits", facilitating testing for PD-L1 expression. These kits comprise four PD-L1 antibodies on two separate IHC platforms, each utilizing distinct, non-interchangeable scoring systems. Several factors, including tumor heterogeneity and the size of the tissue specimens assessed, can lead to PD-L1 status misclassification, potentially hindering the initiation of therapy. Therefore, the development of more accurate predictive biomarkers to distinguish between responders and non-responders prior to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy warrants further research. Achieving this goal necessitates refining sampling criteria, enhancing current methods of PD-L1 detection, and deepening our understanding of the impact of additional biomarkers. In this article, we review potential solutions to improve the predictive accuracy of PD-L1 assessment in order to more precisely anticipate patients' responses to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, monitor disease progression and predict clinical outcomes.

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Published

03-01-2024

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Reviews

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How to Cite

1.
Refining PD-1/PD-L1 assessment for biomarker-guided immunotherapy: A review. Biomol Biomed [Internet]. 2024 Jan. 3 [cited 2024 Feb. 23];24(1):14–29. Available from: https://bjbms.org/ojs/index.php/bjbms/article/view/9265