The clinical characteristics and surgical approach of scar endometriosis: A case series of 14 women
Scar endometriosis, also referred to as abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE), is a rare form of endometriosis that usually develops in the scar after obstetric or gynecological surgeries, including cesarean section (CS). Recently, the occurrence of scar endometriosis has been increasing together with the increase of CS incidence. Scar endometriosis can be clinically misdiagnosed as hernia, lipoma, or hematoma. Here we retrospectively analyzed the clinical aspects of scar endometriosis and surgical approach in 14 patients from a tertiary hospital, who were treated by surgery, between 2012 and 2017. The mean age was 32.71 ± 8.61 years (range: 19–45). Palpable mass and cyclic pain at the scar site were the most common complaints. Twelve patients had previously undergone CS, and two patients had undergone a surgery of ovarian endometrioma. The preoperative diagnosis was determined with ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or computed tomography (CT). Preoperatively, scar endometriosis was diagnosed in 12/14 patients (85.7%), while 2 patients (14.3%) were diagnosed with inguinal hernia. The treatment was surgical excision in all patients; in addition, mesh repair surgery was performed in 1 patient with recurrent scar endometriosis. Postoperatively, endometriosis was confirmed by histology in all patients. The average size of endometriomas was 24.71 ± 6.67 mm (range: 11–35). No woman had concurrent pelvic endometriosis. In the follow-up period (mean: 9 months) the recurrence of endometriosis was not observed. Scar endometriosis should be considered in all women of reproductive age presenting with cyclic pain and swelling in their abdominal incision sites.
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